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Posted on November 02, 2007


The rates of many STDs are highest among adolescents. For example, the reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea are highest among females aged 15–19 years, and many persons acquire HPV infection during their adolescent years. Among adolescents with acute HBV infection, the most commonly reported risk factors are having sexual contact with a chronically infected person or with multiple sex partners, or reporting their sexual preference as homosexual. As part of a comprehensive strategy to eliminate HBV transmission in the United States, ACIP has recommended that all children and adolescents be administered HBV vaccine.


Younger adolescents (i.e., persons aged <15 years) who are sexually active are at particular risk for STDs, especially youth in detention facilities, STD clinic patients, male homosexuals, and injecting-drug users (IDUs). Adolescents are at higher risk for STDs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, are biologically more susceptible to infection, are engaged in sexual partnerships frequently of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles to using health care. Several of these issues can be addressed by clinicians who provide services to adolescents. Clinicians can address adolescents’ lack of knowledge and awareness regarding the risks and consequences of STDs by offering guidance concerning healthy sexual behavior and, therefore, prevent the establishment of patterns of behavior that can undermine sexual health.


With a few exceptions, all adolescents in the United States can legally consent to the confidential diagnosis and treatment of STDs. In all 50 states and the District of Columbia, medical care for STDs can be provided to adolescents without parental consent or knowledge. In addition, in the majority of states, adolescents can consent to HIV counseling and testing. Consent laws for vaccination of adolescents differ by state. Several states consider provision of vaccine similar to treatment of STDs and provide vaccination services without parental consent. Because of the crucial importance of confidentially, health-care providers should follow policies that provide confidentiality and comply with state laws for STD services.


Despite the prevalence of STDs among adolescents, providers frequently fail to inquire about sexual behavior, assess risk for STDs, provide counseling on risk reduction, and screen for asymptomatic infection during clinical encounters. The style and content of counseling and health education on these sensitive subjects should be adapted for adolescents. Discussions should be appropriate for the patient’s developmental level and should be aimed at identifying risky behaviors (e.g., sex and drug-use behaviors). Careful, nonjudgmental, and thorough counseling are particularly vital for adolescents who might not acknowledge that they engage in high-risk behaviors.

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